Parkinson's disease: how to relieve the patient's condition
Parkinson's disease is the most common neurological disease. Only in the United States alone does the number of patients exceed 2 million people or 0.8% of the country's population. The disease affects people of advanced age, so among those 70 to 79 years of age, there are about 1800 cases per 100,000 people. If you say that you are still long before this age, and according to the same statistics, death in our country comes earlier - you will prove to be wrong. Remember the famous boxer Muhammad Ali, he was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 40 years. If trouble comes into our doors, it is necessary to meet it vsoruzhii.
History of the disease
The history of Parkinson's disease goes through the ages. On the Egyptian papyrus, which came down to us from the distant XII century. BC. Depicts a pharaoh sitting in the traditional posture of the patient "Parkinson." The texts of the Bible tell us about people whose body is troubled by a shiver, and the Persian doctor Avicenna and the ancient Roman Galen in their time struggled with this serious ailment. In 1817, the English physician James Parkinson, observing the development of symptoms in himself and five other unhappy people, described the "trembling disease". His monograph The Essay on Shaking Paralysis is the first voluminous work on the disease. After 57 years, the French neurologist Jean Charcot investigating this disease, came to the conclusion that the name "Tremor paralysis" was invented unsuccessfully. The reason for this was the absence of tremor in some patients. Since then, the disease bears the name of the first researcher and, unfortunately, not the first patient - James Parkinson.
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease
How do you recognize a person with Parkinson's disease? Currently, this is not a problem, because there are a number of pronounced signs characteristic of this disease. The first thing you should pay attention to is a shiver. A shiver or tremor, as it is also called, often appears in the hands, but there are cases when a tremor occurs in the lower extremities. It should be noted that trembling in Parkinson's disease reaches its peak at rest and under static stress. Great inconvenience to the person is delivered by the vibrating hands interfering to perform simple actions on self-service. The trembling arising in a state of rest, at fulfillment of any movement of the affected limb, either will disappear, or considerably weaken. However, the tremor that occurs with a static load, and this can be a certain posture, a directed movement that requires kinesthetic concentration, will intensify and even embrace larger and larger areas of the body.
With increasing duration of Parkinson's disease, persistent progression is observed, proceeding in the following order:
- trembling of the hand (foot);
- hand and foot trembling on one side of the body;
- limb trembling on the other side of the body.
Another hallmark of Parkinson's disease is hypokinesia. The patient becomes awkward, quickly becomes tired, can not perform elementary actions. So, a big difficulty for the patient is button fastening on the clothes, and if you offer this person to write the text, you will see that the letters in his letter will decrease in size by the end of the line. The movements of such people become slow, and if they want to make a complex movement, the patient's body can completely refuse to obey.
An important sign of Parkinson's disease is muscle rigidity. Rigidity can be compared with "tricking", when at rest the muscle, instead of being relaxed and soft, is strained along the entire length. In addition to the "wooden" muscles, there is a symptom of Froman: if a person moves the limb, tremor in the dormant arm or leg will increase. Rigidity is accompanied by muscle spasms, which do not give rest to the patient's body. Spasms, often painless, appear suddenly in the muscles, and also suddenly go away. Chronic stress of large muscle groups leads to the formation of scoliotic posture, so some signs of the disease can be determined even from a photo of the patient Parkinson. The deformed thorax does not allow easy to produce a deep breath, which leads to respiratory failure.
In concluding the theme of Parkinson's disease symptoms, it is important to highlight the pathological characteristics that form in the later stages of the disease. Presumably, five years after the onset of the disease, spatial instability arises. Due to the chronic strain of flexor muscles, the patient's body reaches the ground. Poor people can not quickly restore their balance and fall. To avoid injury, many patients are attributed to walkers and walking sticks. In the late stages of the disease, urinary incontinence and intestinal distress occur, and then dementia may develop in the patient.
Depression accompanies patients with Parkinson's disease. In more than 50% of patients, attacks of panic attacks and anxiety are observed.
Causes of the disease
Parkinson's disease is a chronic degenerative disease of the nervous system, the predisposition of which is inherited by the dominant type. This means that the pathological gene transmits the disease to half of its offspring. At the same time, sick children transmit the disease to the next generation, but there are no healthy ones. The main cause of Parkinson's disease is congenital deficiency of the enzyme L-thyroxine hydroxylase. This enzyme is responsible for converting thyroxine to dioxyphenylalanine, which plays an important role in the synthesis of dopamine by the body. It has been clinically proven that the manifestation of Parkinson's disease occurs when the production of dopamine is reduced by at least 80%. What does this neurohormone give?
First, dopamine is an important mediator in a person's thinking processes, because switching attention from one activity to another is done through dopaminergic transmission. A decrease in the level of this substance leads to a slowed perception, and movement, which we can clearly see in patients with Parkinson's disease. Secondly, dopamine is part of the brain's "incentive system", in the synthesis of this neurohormone a person feels joy, the degree of which depends on the amount of hormone produced. Lack of joy and chronic depressive condition can be considered a symptom of Parkinson's disease. In 20-30% of patients, the appearance of a depressed mood outstrips motor disorders.
The absence of dopamine causes many pathological manifestations in the body. Neurons, the main property of which to transmit nerve signals through the transfer of dopamine is dying, which leads to activation of the cholinergic neurons of the striatum. Namely, these neurons transmit the impulse to the muscles. And now imagine that the current that went alternately began to flow constantly, causing tension in the corresponding muscle groups. But this is not all - the death of neurons can involve the cerebral cortex, causing dementia in patients.
Unfortunately, Parkinson's disease refers not only to congenital diseases. Human exposure to certain drugs, poisoning with carbon monoxide, lead, carbon disulfide, manganese, hydrocyanic acid, cyanide causes the destruction of black matter in the brain, leading to secondary parkinsonism. Distinguish secondary parkinsonism for reasons of its occurrence:
Vascular Parkinsonism is a disorder of cerebral circulation against the background of atherosclerosis, hypertensive disease or a combination thereof.
Toxic parkinsonism - develops when poisoning with carbon disulphide, carbon monoxide, lead, manganese and other heavy metals.
Medicinal parkinsonism - is caused by the use of drugs more often dopaminergic blockers (antidepressants, antipsychotics).
Posttraumatic Parkinsonism - Cause - Traumatic brain injury.
Postencephalitic parkinsonism - the development of the disease due to the encephalitis transferred.
Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's chorea and others) can also cause secondary parkinsonism.
Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Treatment of Parkinson's disease can go in two ways: drug treatment and, in rare cases, a surgical operation. Drug treatment is determined depending on the stage of the disease, which there are five:
1. Unilateral signs of the disease.
2. Bilateral manifestations of parkinsonism.
3. Manifestation of postural instability with bilateral signs of parkinsonism. The patient is able to watch himself.
4. Significant instability with marked signs of parkinsonism. The patient needs help.
5. The patient can not move without help. Signs of Parkinsonism are pronounced.
The main medicines are two groups of drugs:
- M-holinolitiki (holinoblokatory)
In the first two stages of Parkinson's disease, anticholinergics or dopamine agonists are prescribed. These drugs reduce the rigidity of muscles, tremors, reduce convulsive phenomena. The most popular drugs are cyclodol, ridinol, norakin, kemadrin, tremaryl, amisil, benzopropin, procyclidine.
With the onset of the third stage of the disease, L-dofa drugs are included in the treatment. Medicines of the named group reduce all manifestations of Parkinson's disease and have a favorable therapeutic effect in 75% of patients. Better than all others have been recommended: larodopa, Eldopa, dofaflex, levona, dopar, syndopa, tseppar.
Drug treatment facilitates the condition of patients, but does not lead to complete recovery. Parkinson's disease is chronic, and even after the use of medicines, degenerative processes continue to destroy the nervous system of the patient. In this regard, pharmacotherapy is carried out for life.
Surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease
Operation with Parkinson's disease is very rarely prescribed. The main indications for the operation are: constant progression of the disease, a decrease in the effect of pharmacological drugs, the emergence of side effects of drug therapy, the inability to increase the dose of drugs due to side effects. The operation is performed on subcortical nuclei of the brain and thalamus, but in recent years neurosurgeons have increasingly begun to use intracerebral transplantation of dopaminergic tissue. This approach is considered more promising and is currently under development.
Consequences of the disease
Parkinson's disease is a terrible disease, which gradually reduces the quality of life of patients. Patients experience attacks of fear, are embarrassed to appear in public, which leads to their social maladjustment, and constantly relapsing physiological symptoms limit the everyday life of patients. According to medical and social expertise, patients with Parkinson's disease are attributed to the following disability groups:
- The third group of disability is established with the manifestation of one or two signs of parkinsonism (paralysis, trembling, rigidity of muscles), but at the same time retaining the opportunity for professional activity
- Group II is given when patients lose the ability to continue working, but at the same time self-service ability is maintained
- I group is determined when self-service is lost
To determine the disability group, the severity of the disease is revealed without support of the patient with medications.
Treatment with folk remedies
If you've read all the material on Parkinson's disease, you are most likely convinced of the seriousness of the disease and the tragedy of its consequences. Unfortunately, official medicine can not cope with this serious illness, and many patients are looking for alternative therapies. Means of traditional medicine represented by herbs, conspiracies, prayers and other fantastic activities are not only not likely to help, but, most importantly, will spend your valuable time. The earlier the patient begins treatment, the longer he will be in a state of relative health. Therefore, do not waste precious time and at the first symptoms of Parkinson's disease consult a doctor.