Erysipelas - be careful of skin injuries
The medical term "erysipelatous inflammation in the people" refers to the disease of the erysipelas. This disease is contagious and is characterized by an inflammatory process in the skin that is caused by streptococcus. The disease develops quickly enough and can manifest itself not only on the limbs, but also on the genitals and on the face. Erysipelas are very common and can occur in both children and adults. The period when cases of erysipelas are most often recorded are summer and autumn. In some cases, a relapse of the disease is possible. The susceptibility of the organism to streptococcal infection is of great importance.
In children, this disease occurs rarely and proceeds fairly easily. In elderly people, on the contrary, the disease of erysipelas is usually manifested in severe form, the feverish period is long, and recovery is very slow. Quite often there are relapses, there are cases up to 5 times a year.
Causes of the disease
Pathogen - Streptococcus bacteria can not provoke the development of the disease in healthy skin cells. For this reason, there must be some provoking factors: skin lesions (scratches, abrasions, intertrigo, etc.); injury; The effect on the skin of sudden temperature changes; stress; Exposure to sunlight.
People with diabetes mellitus, varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, fungal foot infections, obesity, alcoholism get into the risk zone. When there are erysipelas on the leg, many are interested in whether this disease is contagious? The face can be transmitted either from a person with erysipelas, or from a direct carrier of streptococcus. Relapses of the disease mostly arise again at the site of the previous inflammation, as this area of the skin becomes sensitive to infection. The occurrence of a relapse may result in improper or incomplete treatment. With regard to immunity, then after the disease, it does not appear, but on the contrary, there remains a greatly increased sensitivity to streptococcus. Most often this disease affects elderly women and men, whose work is associated with frequent skin contamination, temperature drop and trauma.
Symptoms of erysipelas
Symptoms of erysipelas on the leg usually manifest themselves brightly. First of all, a person has weakness, high body temperature (can rise to 40 degrees), nausea, pain in the muscles of the legs and a headache. In the area of the affected area, at first, itching or burning will be felt. Approximately in a day there are painful sensations, a heat on a skin. Then a red spot appears, which may increase in size in a few hours. The affected area will have a bright red or pink hue, its edges are clear, but irregular, may slightly rise above the surface of the skin. To the touch, the skin will be hot, there will be soreness when touched and tension. Swelling may appear if the erysipelas occur on the genitals, lips, or eyelids. In the inflamed area of the skin, there may appear blisters that can spontaneously burst, and wounds arise in their place.
The febrile period can last up to 10 days and will depend on the treatment performed and on what form of the disease. Inflammation in the skin can persist for up to two weeks. When relapse occurs, there are also signs of fever that last from one to two days. The disease recurs more easily than initially. The peculiarity of erysipelas is that its first signs, such as fever, headache and weakness, and it is easily confused with the flu.
Classification and types of erysipelas
In order to select the correct and effective treatment for erysipelas, it is first necessary to determine the nature of the lesion and the severity of the disease. By the nature of the defeat of the skin, the disease is divided:
• erythematous form - patch of skin with edema, red and painful when touched; The boundaries of the affected area are clear, the edges are irregular in the form of notches; Can appear peeling;
• erythematous hemorrhagic form - hemorrhage is observed on the affected area of the skin; Bubbles that appear are filled with hemorrhagic fluid;
• erythematous-bullous - the affected area of the skin begins to flake off; The emerging bubbles are filled with a yellowish liquid; The crust that remains in place of the blisters also peels;
Bullous hemorrhagic - with this form of erysipelas, it can be said that the capillaries are deeply damaged and the blisters are filled with serous hemorrhagic fluid; On the inflamed area the tissue can die, there may be suppuration; After complete recovery from a person on this part of the body may remain scars.
The erysipelas has three degrees of severity of the disease:
• With a mild form of the disease, the temperature does not rise above 39 degrees, the redness of the skin is observed in a small area, the manifestations of fever go through about three days;
• with moderate form, the temperature will already be around 40 degrees for about 4-5 days, the signs of intoxication will be more pronounced - it's nausea, headache, weakness; Infection spreads over a larger area of the skin;
• With severe erysipelas, the temperature rises above 40 degrees and will hold for more than five days in such a high range; There may be hallucinations and confusion; Damaged skin areas are very extensive and have a high probability of complications in the form of sepsis, gangrene, pneumonia.
Diagnosis of inflammation and treatment
The main diagnosis is established after examination by a doctor and with all the symptoms characteristic of erysipelas. To exclude the presence of another disease, a number of laboratory tests and consultation of a dermatologist are appointed as diagnostics. In the blood test results, the main indicators of ESR and leukocytes will be increased, which indicates the presence of a bacterial infection. There are no special tests to determine erysipelas.
For this disease the prognosis is quite favorable, especially if the disease does not take place in severe form. Timely and properly prescribed treatment gives very good results. Severe treatment is given to erysipelas in severe form, with concomitant complications and elephantiasis. Long-term treatment is also required for elderly people, people who have indigestion, violation of outflow of venous blood and lymph, and also with immunodeficiency.
The doctor should prescribe the treatment of erysipelas on the leg, taking into account the characteristics of the disease, the presence of complications, its nature and shape. Indications for treatment in a hospital are: severe form of erysipelas, child or elderly age, frequent relapses and the presence of severe co-morbidities. As for medicines, their main goal is the destruction of a bacterial infection of streptococcus. If treatment is carried out at home, antibiotics are prescribed in tablets. Its effectiveness in the treatment of erysipelas on the leg was proved by the following drugs: doxycycline, erythromecin, spiramycin, azithromycin, oletetrin, rifampicin and others. If antibiotic is not tolerated by the body, then delagil and flucanazole may be prescribed.
If severe complications, such as phlegmon and abscess, develop, be sure to find a sick person in a hospital hospital. To treat such severe manifestations of the disease, a drug called benzylpenicillin is usually prescribed, which must be taken within 10 days. Sometimes this medicine is used in combination with gentamicin. Obligatory intake of a course of vitamins within four weeks. If the heavy form of erysipelas, then intravenously injected a solution of glucose, saline, haemodes. To relieve other symptoms - antipyretic drugs, diuretics and cardiovascular. To combat fever, you need a generous warm drink. Anti-inflammatory drugs are needed if the inflammation of the skin is very strong (chlortazole and butadione). It is recommended to comply with bed rest for the entire period of treatment of erysipelas.
With the advent of relapse treatment is carried out only in a hospital. A course of antibiotic therapy with a duration of up to ten days and antibiotics that were not prescribed in the previous treatment is prescribed. Initially, a course of cephalosporins is conducted, which lasts from 7 to 10 days. After a break for a week - a course of lincomycin. The immune system must be restored. For this purpose, it is necessary to take such drugs as sodium nucleate, methyluracil and others.
Local therapy is prescribed in the presence of extensive skin surfaces with opened blisters. When wounds (bullous form of erysipelas) are present, dressing with antiseptic means is mandatory. Ointments are practically not used to treat erysipelas on the foot, as they can additionally irritate the skin and hinder healing. To speed up the process of restoring the skin, one of the methods of physiotherapy is appointed - paraffin baths, UHF or UFO.
If treatment is not undertaken in a timely manner, serious complications and consequences may occur, for example, nephritis, sepsis, pneumonia, thrombophlebitis. With frequent relapses, elephant leg develops, which provokes a violation in the outflow of lymph. Also on the skin appear non-healing ulcers, the death of plots Skin and abscess .
Treatment of erysipelas with folk remedies
Very effective in the treatment of erysipelas and various recipes of folk remedies. For example, it is recommended that the affected area of the skin be lubricated with propolis ointment. This tool will help to quickly remove the inflammation. You can apply and grinded fruits of hawthorn, which have similar properties. As a dry compress, potato starch is suitable, which, together with a piece of cotton wool, is applied to the inflamed area.
If there is necrosis of skin areas, a special infusion will help, which is prepared from tin, black tea and oak bark. Compress with this infusion should be kept on the skin for no more than ten minutes. With bursting bubbles and existing wet areas, the following folk method will help: take white sugar, xeroform, boric acid and white streptocide. Before using this powder, the wound must be treated with hydrogen peroxide. To the affected area, you can tie gauze with powder of sage and chalk leaves or apply the leaves of plantain. As a compress fit crushed in a meat grinder cabbage and celery.
You can also prepare infusions and decoctions that are taken internally. For these purposes, the most common medicinal herbs are used. The first recipe is a mixture of leaves of mother-and-stepmother, chamomile, black elderberry, kirkason grass, oak bark and flowers of the Crimean rose. Decoction can be prepared and from the leaves of mother-and-stepmother.
Helps to quickly restore health with erysipelas and a special diet. It is recommended to eat a few days only with liquids: water, lemon or orange juice. After a febrile state passes, they switch to a fruit diet. Very useful will be the following fruits: apples, peaches, pears, apricots, oranges. To restore and soften the skin in the diet should be present carrots. Milk contains excellent bactericidal properties.
The real storehouse of vitamins is honey. It also has healing, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Follow the diet for two weeks. From drinks you can use mineral water and green tea. Sources of potassium and calcium, which help remove excess fluid from the body, are potatoes, walnuts, sea kale, prunes, beans, cheese, cottage cheese, sour cream, almonds and others. To strengthen immunity, you can use currant, cranberry, raspberry and cherry.
Prevention of erysipelas
The general measures to prevent erysipelas include the observance of the necessary rules of antiseptics and asepsis in the treatment of wounds, scratches and abrasions on the skin. Proper treatment for various streptococcal infections. When relapses occur, a regular examination should be performed at the doctor within two years. Avoid sudden temperature changes and avoid overcooling.
When a fungal disease occurs on the feet, it is necessary to carry out its treatment. For those patients who experience frequent recurrences of this disease, antibiotics of delayed action are prescribed, which prevent the development of streptococcal infection in the body. In some cases, such medicines must be taken within one year.