The risk of developing gastroenteritis is increasing during the summer
Gastroenteritis is a disease that, according to statistics, is one of the most common and frequent reasons for going to the doctor, especially in the summer. It is believed that gastroenteritis is more typical for third world countries, where water quality is poor and hygiene is poor. But quite well-off countries are not spared the disease, although its outbreaks there are infrequent and easily amenable to cure. The most sensitive to this disease are children, pregnant and elderly people.
What is gastroenteritis
In general, gastroenteritis is a disease of the gastrointestinal tract, which is characterized by inflammatory processes in the gastric mucosa and small intestine. If the disease proceeds in an acute form, the mucosa of the large intestine is also affected, in which case the condition is defined as a gastroenterocolitis.
Recognize chronic and acute gastroenteritis. Typically, the cause of the disease gastroenteritis are viruses (this is rotavirus, adenovirus, kalitsivirus) or bacteria and parasites. But there are also cases when the disease provokes the defeat of the body with toxic chemicals, or it is the taking of some drugs. Also, this disease in adults can develop due to alcoholism, with frequent abuse of fatty and acute dishes, intoxications of domestic and industrial nature, radiation injuries. Provoke an aggravation can and various (quite benign) food and even a violation of the usual eating habits. The chronic form is less common and is either a consequence of untreated acute gastroenteritis, or develops with oncology.
Causes and types of the disease
Acute gastroenteritis varies depending on the origin and the disease that provoked the disease. Viral and infectious gastroenteritis - they are also called "disease of dirty hands", as they are usually caused by non-compliance with hygiene rules, poor-quality food or contaminated water. Very often, children can develop this unpleasant illness after they lift something from the ground or just touch dirty objects on the street.
Infectious gastroenteritis is associated with various pathogens: pathogenic E. coli, dysentery bacteria, staphylococci. Their "hotbeds" can be stored in an improper place dishes and poorly washed or not sufficiently thermally processed foods. The disease can also be caused by salmonella, which is often found in meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products. Gastroenteritis can be picked up on foreign trips, where the protozoa can be protozoa - lamblia and amoeba. Often infectious gastroenteritis can still be called gastric flu.
Rotavirus can most often provoke viral gastroenteritis in winter, it is recognized as the "culprit" of sixty percent of cases. Rotavirus gastroenteritis is most often observed in children, and usually occurs during the first two years of life (more often in the second half of the year and in the second year of life). By three to five years, babies are already developing immunity to the disease, and due to the fact that they have been ill or seriously ill. In third world countries, this disease is the most common cause of death in children. Infection with the disease can only be from a person by fecal-oral route.
Toxic gastroenteritis can occur with poisonings of various kinds. First of all, it can cause various poisons - sulama, arsenic and others, it is also quite possible to get toxic poisoning by inedible mushrooms, in particular, fly agarics, pallid grebe, false mushrooms. Food products can also contain poisonous substances not of a bacterial nature - they can often be found in stone and fish products (most often pike liver, mackerel eggs, etc.).
The cause of the disease can also become an allergic reaction, when the organism individually does not perceive any food, reacting to them with acute inflammatory conditions. To provoke the reaction can be both food products (citrus fruits, strawberries, seafood, etc.), and drugs (individual sulfonamides, antibiotics, preparations with iodine, bromine, etc.).
Alimentary gastroenteritis can be obtained with a tendency to overeating, or a special love for sharp and fatty foods, too rough food, eating "dry". You can also get sick, often taking strong spirits, sauces and condiments that irritate the mucous.
Concomitant reasons for the occurrence of gastroenteritis include general decrease in immunity, hypothermia, frequent use of very cold drinks, polyhypovitaminosis. Approximately between one and five days after infection, the symptoms of acute gastroenteritis develop: the earliest ones include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. If this is a viral gastroenteritis, proceeding in a mild form, then there may be only a single vomiting that stops in the diurnal period. In severe form, malaise lasts for five to seven or even ten days, accompanied by diarrhea and/or vomiting (some of the symptoms may be dominant). Often there is an increase in temperature, fever, headaches, weakness, abdominal pain localized around the navel, and a strong swelling.
The most severe cases are characterized by the appearance in the stool of mucus and blood secretions. If this happens or the patient has deep fainting, severe dizziness or convulsions - an immediate call of a doctor is mandatory! These signs indicate that the body is unable to resist the disease. However, the symptoms of adult gatroenteritis may not be present at all - they become carriers of the disease and are dangerous, especially for children.
Prevention of gastroenteritis
To prevent morbidity in children's and public institutions, it is important to identify such carriers, but often a child can get sick and catch the infection directly from the parents. The danger is that gastroenteritis in children, as a rule, always proceeds in severe form, and in particularly neglected cases it can even lead to death. The most common symptoms of gastroenteritis in children are: nausea (especially when eating), fever, diarrhea, colic in the abdomen and its swelling. Noticing such symptoms, you should certainly take care of replenishing the liquid in the body of the baby - give more water (babies give water by droplets) with sugar or sugar mixed in it (you can make a mix).
As soon as there is a suspicion of developing symptoms of gastroenteritis in a child, immediately call a doctor (especially when it comes to young children whose immune system is not fully formed). If the doctor has confirmed the diagnosis, for the period of treatment the child will need a special diet to help normalize the stomach. Dairy products are completely excluded for two weeks, and the ration consists of unsweetened vegetable/fruit purees, lean boiled meat, lean soups, baked apples (diet for gastroenteritis to adhere to at least a week).
Acute gastroenteritis can also be dangerous for pregnant women, causing dehydration and loss of electrolytes, which can lead to serious problems. For the elderly, the danger is that the immune system is no longer functioning properly. As in children, with symptoms indicating a possible development of gastroenteritis, the elderly and pregnant should immediately consult a doctor. Before consulting a doctor, you should not take any medications for diarrhea, as they can lead to intestinal blockage or gullet.
Diagnosis and treatment
As with the treatment of any disease, it is very important to properly diagnose gastroenteritis. First of all, other diseases that characterize similar symptoms should be excluded by the doctor: they may be ulcerative colitis, cholecystitis, appendicitis, etc. Indirect causes may be indicated for gastroenteritis - the use of potentially dangerous food or non-contaminated water, substances that irritate the stomach, contacts with people with Suspicion of a disease, travel or being in places with an outbreak of disease. The doctor can diagnose the illness himself, collecting anamnesis and listening to complaints, but it is possible to identify a variety of gastroenteritis and its causative agent (which is important in the appointment of the right treatment) only with the help of research in laboratories of vomit, feces and blood.
As for the direct treatment of gastroenteritis, its peculiarity consists in the absence of the need for antibiotics (with rare exceptions at the insistence of the physician). Other medications can only be used after they have been prescribed by your physician-gastroenterologist.
In case of gastroenteritis taking place in severe form, as well as with toxic lesions, the severity of which can not be determined, the patient is surely taken to the hospital. Those infected with infectious gastroenteritis are delivered to infectious specialized departments. In any acute form, gastric lavage is used. The first day should refrain from eating and drinking a lot. From medicinal preparations in the treatment use digestive enzymes, and then drugs, designed to normalize the broken microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.
On the second (less often - the third) day in food, you can already gradually add breadcrumbs (without additives), low-fat broth, liquid, mashed porridge, then the diet gradually expands. To prevent further exacerbation of the disease should be very strictly observe all hygiene standards, and also eat only benign products. Smoking for the period of treatment is also necessary to completely abandon nicotine. In case of chronic gastroenteritis during periods of exacerbation, inpatient treatment should be performed in compliance with a special diet and using tablets exclusively for the purpose of a specialist.
Treatment of gastroenteritis in children. Treatment of gastroenteritis in children should also be under the supervision of a specialist, only he can determine how acute the disease is, which drugs will be most effective in each case, whether the baby should be placed in a hospital. In acute gastroenteritis in children, as well as in adults, the most dangerous is dehydration of the body, so before the arrival of a doctor (which will certainly need to be called), try to often and gradually give the baby water, broth of wild rose or tea (but not apple and other juices and not Dairy products).
Folk remedies for gastroenteritis treatment
For the treatment of gastroenteritis, there are recipes for folk methods of treatment, but before they can be used, a treatment regimen with a gastroenterologist should be discussed, in order not to aggravate the situation and avoid negative consequences.
Masturbatory infusions are often used with gastroenteritis: for preparation, take a spoonful of mint leaves, fill them with a glass of steep boiling water. After giving thirty minutes to stand, the liquid is filtered. The patient should take the medication once every sixty grams.
Effective and broth dried cranberries: twenty grams of berries taken in dried form, pour half a liter of boiling water, and then on a slow fire (you can use water baths) languish fifteen minutes. A strained drink is taken three to four times a day for eighty milligrams. Cranberries have an antiseptic effect, so this folk remedy is used for infectious forms of gastroenteritis.
To overcome severe forms of the disease will help the orchis, it is able to increase the defenses of the body itself, which is important in the treatment of gastroenteritis. Several tubers of orchis are grinded into powder, then spreading a glass of hot milk. The resulting jelly is used for fifty grams per day, it can be slightly sweetened with honey.
Infusion of the black head will help to overcome diarrhea - the most common symptom of gastroenteritis. A teaspoon of black head is steamed in a glass of boiling water and placed for two and a half hours in a thermos bottle. A strained drink is consumed before eating two teaspoons. The bark of the oak, as well as the roots of the marshmallow, the aira and the wormwood, the cherry fruit, the tansy flowers, the herb and the leaves of the tansy, have a similar effect. From them, broths should be prepared.
Do not forget that folk remedies do not replace doctor's advice and can not guarantee a complete cure, although they may well be used as maintenance therapy.
Gastroenteritis in animals
One should know that this disease can affect not only people, but also present a danger to our pets. Just like in humans, gastroenteritis in dogs can arise from poor quality fodder and/or poorly purified water, and in eating disorders (allowing the animal to feed fatty foods, sausages and other sausages, as well as overfeeding).
The frequent causes of the disease may be the presence of parasites, intestinal stones in the intestine, as well as concomitant inflammatory diseases. Dogs also differ in acute and chronic gastroenteritis, the latter often being a consequence of an incomplete acute condition and usually leading to the development of colitis (inflammation of the large intestine mucosa). Distinguish between viral gastroenteritis in dogs, which the animal can pick up from other diseases - when visiting a vet, you should definitely determine whether the disease is viral or not.
With mild forms, the disease passes almost asymptomatically - the appetite is preserved along with the increased thirst. In severe forms, diarrhea, rapid pulse, painful abdomen are observed. Acute forms require an indispensable visit to the veterinarian.
Often there is also gastroenteritis in cats - for them a risk factor may be a combination of feeding poor quality dry food with the inability to get enough water. Similarly, the course of the disease in dogs when treating a pet is important to establish whether the disease is caused by feeding errors, concomitant diseases or disease caused by viruses.
For successful treatment it is very important to follow the advice of a veterinarian and adherence to a sick pet by a strict diet (which the vet will also recommend to you).
For cats and dogs, coronaviral gastroenteritis may be especially dangerous: in addition to the symptoms of diarrhea, it is also characterized by increased weakness in animals, as well as the rapid course of the disease. As a rule, there are three forms of the disease development - super-sharp, acute and latent. In the first case, a lethal outcome can often occur, with an acute prognosis from a favorable to an unfavorable, with a latent form, usually the animals are cured. As a rule, the disease affects young animals - puppies and kittens.
There is no threat to human health (even with close contact), it is solely about maintaining the health of pets.
In general, it should be remembered that gastroenteritis is a disease that can not be protected with an absolute guarantee, but it is possible to protect one's health (and the health of loved ones) by observing all hygiene requirements, using benign products and avoiding places where potentially ill people People.