Chronic tonsillitis - a harmless inflammation in the throat or a dangerous disease?
Various ailments and pains in the nasopharynx are familiar to everyone. Sore throat, feeling of stuffiness, pain when swallowing, burning and tickling - the range of sensations is no less great than the list of possible diseases. Change in the color of the tongue and the appearance of swelling on the neck in the area of the lymph nodes are also clear signs of the development of the disease. In addition, in the oral cavity, in the depths, there are tonsils, or, as everyone is called to call, tonsils. These lymphoid formations of the nasopharynx perform a protective function and work as a kind of barrier on the path of inhaled pathogens. It is the long-term inflammation of the palatine and pharyngeal tonsils that is referred to in medicine as chronic tonsillitis.
Causes of chronic tonsillitis
The causes of chronic tonsillitis may be different. All kinds of infections - from streptococcus and pneumococcus to the herpes virus are able to become a major factor in the development of the disease, as they penetrate into the lymph through the microcracks - lacunae. Tonsils inflamed due to focal local infection respond to different causes with separate symptoms, so the classification of tonsillitis contains several options and stages.
According to the pathomorphological systematization, the following are distinguished:
- parenchymal tonsillitis, when the inflammation is localized predominantly in the lymphadenoid tissue;
- lacunar, with inflammation in the lacunae of the tonsils;
- lacunar-parenchymal, connecting both locations of development of the inflammatory process;
- sclerotic, suggests an abundant and rapid spread of connective tissue in the tonsils and adjacent tissues.
Some circumstances contribute to the development of the disease, the presence of which provokes the active spread of infection:
- unfavorable working, living conditions;
- unsuitable climatic conditions (always individually);
- subcooling or general freezing, for example, during the cold season;
- irrational, unbalanced, rare, but plentiful food with low-value products;
- the presence of chronic inflammatory processes in the body, especially in the area of the nose, mouth, paranasal sinuses and ears;
- difficulty breathing with the nose.
In addition, directly the peculiarities of the structure of the tonsils themselves can provoke the appearance of the disease. The thing is that, as already noted, the tonsils have crevices, with a narrow entrance, but a wide bottom. In them, when the inflammation develops, a mucous or purulent secret is accumulated. Constant trauma of lacunae with fungi, viruses and microbes, hot, spicy food and dry air leads to a violation of the balance of the body's defenses.
The chronic presence of bacterial infection in the tissues of the tonsils not only violates their protective functions and provokes physical growth, but also facilitates the penetration of bacteria and infections into the respiratory tract and digestive system. Therefore, chronic tonsillitis is characterized by periodic outbreaks and exacerbations in the form of angina and colds (ARVI). When the body is weakened, the immunity is lowered and the tonsils do not cope with their task, the microbes trapped inside the tissue provoke inflammation. If the disease manifests itself primarily, it is an acute tonsillitis. Usually, this inflammation is caused by streptococci and is easily transmitted by airborne droplets.
Treatment depends on the symptoms and the presence of complications, but usually lasts about one to two weeks. The main drugs that perfectly cope with the primary causes of infection are antibiotics. The schedule of application and dosage is prescribed by the doctor strictly individually, based on the history of the course of the disease, the age of the patient and the presence of concomitant symptoms.
It is important to remember that a patient with a similar diagnosis should be isolated as much as possible from relatives. It is also recommended to frequently ventilate the room in which it is located, and allocate a separate dish for food. The fewer options for contacts, the better.
Symptoms of chronic tonsillitis are:
1) frequent angina, that is, the recurrence of the disease more often than three times a year;
2) subfebrile condition, expressed by a slight increase in temperature, which persists for a long period;
3) the presence of a white rash on the tonsils - this is the so-called plugs, curd-like congestions in the lacunae of the tonsils;
4) presence and secretion of pus;
5) loosening, compaction or other changes in the tonsils;
6) small enlargement of cervical lymph nodes and painful sensations when touched;
7) decreased physical performance, fatigue or chronic fatigue.
Treatment of the disease
Treatment of chronic tonsillitis, as well as the treatment of any other chronic disease - a long and complex. To eliminate the effects of prolonged growth of the inflammatory process and the rehabilitation of the body, it is recommended to use medicines, adjust nutrition, and wash tonsils. In addition, to improve immunity and general protective factors of a weakened organism, a doctor can recommend outdoor exercise, vitamin intake and exercise.
Chronic pathological processes in the tonsils are dangerous for the whole organism. Reducing the barrier function, as well as the peculiar addiction and resistance of pathogens to various drugs and medications causes a number of other problems. The defeat of the kidneys, heart and joints is a frequent consequence of chronic inflammation of the tonsils.
Diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis is not always possible. In rare cases, tests give a truthful result. Usually to establish the diagnosis, the doctor observes the patient for a certain period, during outbreaks of inflammation and during the period of asymptomatic illness. Among the mandatory analyzes are:
- smear on the flora (from the surface of the tonsils and nose);
- a general blood test;
- biochemical analysis of saliva;
- the immunogram of the blood;
is a general urinalysis.
If the diagnosis is difficult, an electrocardiogram and ultrasound examination of the heart, kidneys and other internal organs is done.
Previously, the only cardinal treatment was considered to be surgical intervention. Removal of tonsils was prescribed often, practically without attempting to treat the patient with therapeutic methods. Given that the tonsils are very important organ in the human body, with time, fortunately, the removal began to be treated with greater caution, and now this radical method is used only in special cases. Tonsils, as part of the most important immune organs, it is important to remain functional, so treatment is now carried out in stages, breaking the general course into several cycles.
As a rule, the doctor tries to prescribe procedures and treatment during the demi-season period - in the spring and in the autumn. Treatment of chronic tonsillitis in children is supplemented with tonsil irrigation and massage, using antiseptics. Children older than two years are prescribed a procedure for the morning, because it needs to be performed on an empty stomach. Marlew or a cotton swab, the tonsils are alternately wiped with lugol or miramistin solution. Execution lacunae can be done with iodine and green. In the absence of contraindications and complications, the procedures are repeated daily for a month.
Various ointments are used as an anti-inflammatory drug. Antibacterial products of plant origin are very popular, because they do not cause allergies, like antibiotics. Washing, as an important element of treatment, is prescribed for adults and children, since this procedure helps to clean lacunae from coughing and purulent plugs. To minimize negative feelings, the entire process is carried out with special devices. Ten to twelve sessions are enough, but they usually take place every other day.
Physiotherapeutic methods are recognized as effective in the treatment of chronic tonsillitis. Microwave and ultrasound procedures are performed in a specialized clinic. With a full course of the prescribed course, the swelling will decrease significantly and inflammation will decrease. In some hospitals, there is still a local quartz movement of the tonsils through the mouth.
A relatively new achievement of modern medicine is the cryotherapy of chronic tonsillitis. Cryotherapy is a safe, highly effective and painless method. At the moment, this type of medical care is recognized as the only alternative option for surgical intervention. The procedure is carried out in the sitting position and lasts no more than 2 minutes for each amygdala. First, irrigation with anesthesia decreases the sensitivity of the lymphatic tissue. Then the doctor treats each amygdala with a special cryoapplicator. Pathologically altered areas of the affected tissue become frozen, die and die within a few days after the procedure. Even in adults, a new, clean, natural mucosa is formed in an ideal form, without scars and scarring.
The radical methods of treatment include complete or partial removal of palatine tonsils. Now, when the choice of options for conservative methods is sufficiently large, surgery is prescribed less and less, and only in cases of serious complication from other organs or in the absence of positive results after other types of recovery.
Tonsillitis in children. Chronic tonsillitis in children is a common occurrence. Lymphatic ring and tonsils, as part of it, catch and destroy microbes, but in children due to weakened local immunity any contacts with a large number of adults and children can be dangerous. Hence the frequent illnesses of children in kindergartens and schools, as well as the recurrence of angina. In addition, many negative consequences are caused by incorrectly treated diseases, including inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx.
If preventive measures are taken, the condition of the child can be significantly improved and its susceptibility to viruses and infections can be changed. To do this, it is enough to periodically carry out vitamin therapy, to feed the baby with nutritious and healthy food, to arrange the hardening procedures. Tempering children can not only rubbing and bathing in cold water, but also with the help of air baths. Even very young children are recommended to arrange such "airing", for a certain time revealing crumbs at home. To consult and learn about the variety of useful procedures should be a pediatrician or health adviser.
Exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis is manifested by paratonsillar abscess or angina. Subcooling, the presence of another infection in the body, decreased immunity and even inadequate treatment of chronic tonsillitis can lead to a sharp exacerbation of the condition. Sore throat, chills, sharp and significant increase in body temperature, headache, general weakness and discomfort in the joints are all typical signs of acute tonsillitis and exacerbation of chronic. In terms of symptomatology, both variants of the development of the disease are similar, only acute tonsillitis occurs in the patient primarily, and exacerbation of the existing disease occurs in chronic form.
It is quite difficult to cure sore throat without antibiotics, therefore doctors do not recommend using folk remedies for exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis. Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antihistamines are the basis for preventing rapid deterioration of the patient's condition. Among the abundance of folk methods, you can choose the recipes of vitaminized infusions and herbal fees, because during treatment it is necessary to drink a lot of warm liquid, comply with bed rest, strictly adhere to the doctor's recommendations and apply prescribed medications. To ensure that the tablets do not enter the body "on an empty stomach", it is important to eat small portions of useful foods frequently and in small quantities. When the body is weakened and exhausted, it is better to stick to the diet and not overload it with additional functions, such as digesting fatty foods.
Chronic tonsillitis in pregnancy is an inevitable event if the expectant mother was sick at the time of conception. But with proper care for themselves and the right, healthy lifestyle during pregnancy, pregnant women may not experience exacerbations and negative manifestations of the disease. Although, of course, a change in the hormonal background and a sharp decrease in the protective functions of the body sometimes lead to unexpected activation of the disease.
Severe sore throat, dry cough, persistent perspiration and a slight increase in body temperature are the main signs of inflammation. The main problem is not so much the poor health of the pregnant woman, but the negative impact of infection on the development of the fetus. In the first trimester, outbreaks of exacerbation of the disease are most dangerous for a baby, so preventive actions and supervision in ENT are very important for a future mother with a diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis. Dissolution tablets, topical sprays and a variety of folk remedies should be used only after consultation with the doctor, because in such a situation the harm caused to the child can be indelible. It is not necessary to refuse treatment, of course, but it is necessary to weigh and compare all possible variants and methods.
Folk methods of treatment
Treatment of chronic tonsillitis with folk remedies is not always effective, but as an auxiliary means of getting rid of the symptoms of the disease, some drugs can be safely used. Given that the abundant drink is recommended by health workers, herbal preparations and decoctions can be taken quite often. Undoubtedly, it is first necessary to clarify the dosage, the specific effects of certain herbs on the body and the methods of making beverages. In addition, one must take into account the individual characteristics and the presence of allergic reactions. As a harmless, but useful tool, steam baths are often recommended. To evaporation was more beneficial, you can add a decoction of lime, sage or dill into the water.
Rinse mouth with beet juice - a fairly common remedy for the treatment of inflammation of the nasopharynx at home. The juice is prepared from unrefined beets by adding a suitable amount of boiling water to the ground mass of the vegetable. After the liquid is infused (the process will take 7-10 hours), every two hours you need to gargle with the juice obtained. Beet juice in its pure form is not recommended, so as not to burn the mucous and already damaged tonsils.
Cough and sore throat are symptoms that are very annoying and interfere with a normal lifestyle. In order not to bring the process to the critical need for radical action, it is necessary to monitor the health and take various preventive measures to prevent sudden outbreaks of disease activation and infection. Proper nutrition, a healthy lifestyle, adequate exercise, outdoor exercise, tempering and other such principles will help to maintain health and well-being.